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MikroTik Networking Windows Server

MikroTik VPN with Windows NPS RADIUS

With the advance of cheap MikroTik routers and ready to use CHR instances, setting up a VPN concentrator for remote access has become an easy task. Moving even further, a single router could provide VPN access and dynamic routing to integrate remote networks to the backbone.

I have started a gig as a consultant and sysadmin for a logistics insurance company, and one of my first proposals was to improve the network access for road warriors and remote workers.

The past

There was a Proxmox hypervisor, with some Windows 2012 R2 servers, providing Terminal Services, to execute a locally installed client for an ERP system. Proxmox was also using iptables on its the Debian backend of the to masquerade the VM networks with a public IP address, for Internet connectivity, dstnat rules for a NGINX reverse proxy, and RDP for the Windows servers..

I guess we all know having internet-exposed RDP is not a good idea, even if it is running in a non default port, so the former sysadmin transitioned to a SSH tunnel system, where the users connected to the hypervisor via SSH to establish tunnel to the desired server.

This solution, which I considered not elegant, was the only available at the moment due to networking constraints of the VPS provider, so really it was the best they were able to do, and it worked fine for them.

Over the Proxmox hypervisor, they also had a MikroTik CHR instance, with a P1 license, which was used to make a L2TP tunnel to a RB2011UiAS-rm located on their HQ.

Networks behind the tunnel endpoints were routed with static routers, so I configured a quick multi-area OSPF routing system, with the directly connected networks on area 0, along with the /30 network of the tunnel. I added an additional area on both ends, for the future VPN networks. Once OSPF was working as expected, I remove the static routes.

Securing the tunnels

This interconnection via the L2TP tunnel was just plain ol’ L2TP, without IPsec. This is no bueno, and could be improved. Fortunately, IPsec configuration on MikroTik is trivial. Just select “Use IPsec” on both ends, and use the same IPsec pre-shared key.

Configuring via Winbox

This can of course be configured via CLI. Would you like some RouterOS configuration Ansible on next posts? Let me know in the comments.

/interface l2tp-server server
set authentication=mschap1,mschap2 default-profile=VPN enabled=yes ipsec-secret="PUT_A_SECRET_HERE" use-ipsec=yes

VPN profiles

It’s always a good idea to copy the default-encryption profile, and create a new one based on that template. I set up a local address which was of course, part of the networks announced in a separate area by the OSPF process. I also added a IP pool to be able to provide dynamic addresses for the VPN users.

PPP profile

Maybe you are aware that in the Cisco world, you have to use tcp adjust-mss to adjust the maximum TCP segment size, to advoid fragmentation of packets over the tunnel. Fortunately, this is configured by default on RouterOS.

We don’t want any fragmentation

Finally, to be able to redirect the dial-in to a RADIUS server, we need to instruct the PPP AAA system to use RADIUS, as shown next.

Setting up RADIUS authentication

RADIUS servers are very simple to set up on RouterOS.

Under the RADIUS submenu, add a new server for PPP service, and configure the following parameters.

  • IP address of the radius server
  • RADIUS secret
  • Authentication and accounting ports, usually 1812 and 1813. Some servers use 1645 for accounting. Those are all UDP.
  • REALM if your server supports that extension
  • Which source address should the router use for its NAS-IP-Address
Configuring RADIUS

Using Windows NPS as a RADIUS server

NPS can work without a Certificate Authority but if you are working in an Active Directory environment, you’ll save a lot of headaches by installing the CA role.

Installing NPS and CA
Selecting Roles

In my particular scenario, the server was not part of a domain so the certificate generation and association was skipped.

Once the roles have been configured, I headed to the NPS service configuration, and add new RADIUS client.

Make sure to match the RADIUS secret and the source IP address as you configured on the MikroTik side.

New RADIUS Client

Next, the network access policies. I wanted to match the NAS IPv4 address, and the authentication types. If you are not familiar with the RADIUS lang, NAS stands for Network Access Server, which in this case, is the MikroTik router which provides the VPN service.

MikroTik source address

I had to use a CHAP fallback due to some legacy devices withuout MSCHAP support.

Authentication methods

Next, I added a new Access condition, matched the NAS address once again, and selected the local server as point of authentication.

Authenticate on this server

Once everything was properly configured, I set up the VPN client on my side, which looks like as follows. The idea of using NPS as RADIUS was to be able to use my Windows account credentials for the VPN.

VPN client on Windows 10

I verified the successful authentication on the router logs, and the VPN was sucessfully connected.

Categories
MikroTik Networking

Introduction to MikroTik CHR

MikroTik Cloud Hosted Router (CHR) is a RouterOS version intended to be used as a virtual machine instance.

It runs on x86-64-bit architecture and can be deployed on most hypervisors such as:

  • VMWare, ESXi, Player and Workstation
  • Microsoft Hyper-V
  • Oracle VirtualBox
  • KVM‌
  • And others, like Xen, but I haven’t tested it yet

Some special requeriments apply depending on the subyacent hypervisor.

ESXi

Network adapters must be vmxnet3 or E1000‌. Just use vmxnet3 to get the most. Disks must be IDE, VMware paravirtual SCSI, LSI Logic SAS or LSI Logic Parallel.

Hyper-V

Network adapters must be Network adapter or Legacy Network adapter .Disks IDE or SCSI.

Qemu/KVM

Virtio, E1000 or vmxnet3 NICs. IDE, Sata or Virtio disks.

VirtualBox

Networking using E1000 or rtl8193, and disks with IDE, SATA, SCSI or SAS interfaces.

Licensing

The CHR images have full RouterOS features enabled by default, but they use a different licensing model than other RouterOS versions.

Paid licenses

p1

p1 (perpetual-1), which allows CHR to run indefinitely. It comes with a limit of 1Gbps upload per interface. All the rest of the features provided by CHR are available without restrictions. It can be upgraded p1 to p10 or p-unlimited.

p10

p10 (perpetual-10), which also allows CHR to run indefinitely, with a 10Gbps upload limit per interface. All features are available without restrictions. It can be upgraded to p-unlimited.

p-unlimited (really?)

The p-unlimited (perpetual-unlimited) license level allows CHR to run indefinitely. It is the highest tier license and it has no enforced limitations.

Free licenses (yay!)

There are two ways to use and try CHR free of charge.

free

The free license level allows CHR to run indefinitely, with a limit of 1Mbps upload per interface. All the rest of the features have no restrictions. This level comes activated by default on all images.

60-day trial

Th p1/p10/pU licenses can be tested with a 60 days trial.

Cool. How can i try it?

The easiest way to spin up a working instance of CHR is using the OVA appliance provided by MikroTik.

https://download2.mikrotik.com/routeros/6.43.14/chr-6.43.14.ova

Deployment on ESXi

Once downloaded, the OVA can be used to deploy a new instance. I’ll be using ESXi on this example. The OVA comes preconfigured with a single network adapter, but more interfaces can be added on a later stage.

Creating new VM from OVA template
Setting VM name, and uploading OVA file
I’ll use local storage for it
Thin provisioned disks, and a previously configured VM network
Review everything, and deploy

Initial Configuration

After the VM boots, log in via CLI with the default credentials:

  • Username: admin
  • Password: none

CHR comes with a free licence‌ by default, limited to 1Mbps upload limit. This is handy for lab purposes, or low traffic scenarios like stand-alone DHCP servers.

A DHCP client is enabled by default on the single existing ether1 interface. Use any of the following methods to find out the adquired address.

/ip dhcp-client print
/ip address print

Let’s get a trial licence. You will need the credentials for your MikroTik account. If you don’t have a MikroTik account, get one here.

The CHR instance will also need Internet access, so be sure to connect the virtual NIC to a VM network where it can make its way to the outside.

[admin@CHR] > sys license renew account=your@account.com password=yourpassword level=

Level ::= p-unlimited | p1 | p10

Once you request a trial license, check the status with

[admin@CHR] > sys lic print
        system-id: 0ywIRMYrtGA
            level: p1
  next-renewal-at: may/05/2019 17:59:59
      deadline-at: jun/04/2019 17:59:59

We’ll install The Dude on the next post, and configure it for some custom monitoring.

Categories
Projects

Dynamic DNS Server System

After a couple of successful jobs with my client Visual Link Internet LLC, they reached me to set up a service similar to dyndns.net. I had already developed another value added services for their customers, like web filtering and firewalling, so I found this project very interesting and fun to do.

Cool, but what is DNS ?

DNS stands for Domain Name Systems. Yep, domains like google.com.

It is based on a distributed database that takes some time to update globally. When DNS was first introduced, the database was small and could be easily maintained by hand. As the system grew this task became difficult for any one site to handle, and a new management structure was introduced to spread out the updates among many domain name registrars.

Due to the distributed nature of the DNS systems and its registrars, updates to the global DNS system may take hours to distribute. Thus DNS is only suitable for services that do not change their IP address very often, but not for servers being run with dynamic addresses, which are likely to change their IP address over very short periods of time.

Ok, but my ISP gives dynamic addresses, and I want to access services on my network. What can i do?

Dynamic DNS is a system that addresses the problem of rapid updates. The term is used in two ways, which, while technically similar, have very different purposes and user populations. The first is “standards-based DNS updates”, which uses an extension of the DNS protocol to ask for an update. The second is usually a web-based protocol, normally a single HTTP fetch with username and password which then updates some DNS records (by some unspecified method).

Many providers offer commercial or free Dynamic DNS service for this scenario. The automatic reconfiguration is generally implemented in the user’s router or computer, which runs software to update the DDNS service. The communication between the user’s equipment and the provider is not standardized, although a few standard web-based methods of updating have emerged over time.

Yeah, but those free services are now paid, and some have even disappeared

I know, I know. But this service can be built in-house. Using open source software, there are no fees, and the company domain name can be used to keep things professional.

This is what my client wanted, so I deployed a solution on a that allowed to offer added value services to customers, and provide easy remote access. Using a open source solution based on PHP (https://github.com/nicokaiser/Dyndns) and some custom Bash scripts I was able to deliver a stable system in a short amount of time.

The main techonologies I used are Apache 2 and PHP 7 for the HTTP requests and update system, and BIND9 for the DNS service.

The solution used the standard URL schema of DynDNS, so it is compatible with any device with support for it. Also, because most CPEs of the client’s network were MikroTik based, I also wrote a RouterOS script to call the update.