Categories
Ansible Juniper Networking

Ansible and Juniper Junos – Interfaces

Previously we had made our first incursions connecting an Ansible control node with a Juniper router. In this post, we’ll see how to retrieve information about the router interfaces, both layer 2 and layer 3, and configure new interfaces.

The official Ansible modules reference will be your main guide for any additional information.
https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/latest/modules/list_of_network_modules.html#junos

If you are interested on this subject, but don’t have access to physical gear, most of it should work on virtual appliances like vMX, vQFX, which you can operate on a stand-alone mode or on a network environment like GNS3 or EVE-NG.

Juniper vLabs will also give you an introduction to the Juniper platform.
https://jlabs.juniper.net/vlabs/portal/index.page

Layer 2 Interfaces

A basic layer 2 interface configuration in Junos looks like this:

ge-0/0/1 {
     description "L2 interface";
     speed 1g;
     unit 0 {
         family ethernet-switching {
             interface-mode access;
             vlan {
                 members vlan30;
             }
         }
     }
 }

This configuration can be written as an Ansible playbook like this:

- name: "Replace provided configuration with device configuration"
  junos_l2_interfaces:
    config:
      - name: ge-0/0/1
        access:
          vlan: v30
    state: merged

Currently, I do not have any EX series or QFX series to decomission and run tests against it, so stay tuned for any updates on this.

The official module documentation is on https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/latest/modules/junos_l2_interfaces_module.html.

Layer 3 Interfaces

A basic layer 3 interface configuration in Junos looks like this:

ge-0/0/1 {
     unit 0 {
         family inet {
             address 192.168.1.10/24;
         }
     }
 }

This configuration can be written as an Ansible playbook like the following, using the same format as the last post.

---
- hosts: all
  gather_facts: no

  tasks:

  - name: Config ge-0/0/1
    junos_l3_interfaces:
      config:
        - name: ge-0/0/1
          ipv4:
            - address: 192.168.1.10/24
      state: merged

Let’s run it and check the result.

$ ansible-playbook juniper.yml -i juniper-hosts.yml

PLAY [all] ********************************************************************************************************************

TASK [Config ge-0/0/1] ********************************************************************************************************
[WARNING]: Platform linux on host 192.168.15.220 is using the discovered Python interpreter at /usr/bin/python, but future
installation of another Python interpreter could change this. See
https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/2.9/reference_appendices/interpreter_discovery.html for more information.

changed: [192.168.15.220]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************************************************************
192.168.15.220             : ok=1    changed=1    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0   

Did you noticed the changed output?
What about the configuration on the router now?

admin> show configuration interfaces
ge-0/0/1 {
    unit 0 {
        family inet {
            address 192.168.1.10/24;
        }
    }
}
fxp0 {
    unit 0 {
        family inet {
            address 192.168.15.220/24;
        }
        family inet6;
    }
}

That’s awesome! We just configured and IP address on ge-0/0/1.

How does Ansible knows what to replace, what to override, and what to delete?

If you take a closer look to the playbook, you will see a line with state: merged. This is a module parameter that specifies the state of the router configuration after the module finishes its job.

The possible values are:

  • merged
  • replaced
  • overriden
  • deleted

In fact, the module matches whatever configuration you build on its parameters, applies a configuration action, and commits the result.

The official module documentation is on https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/latest/modules/junos_l3_interfaces_module.html.

Categories
Ansible Juniper Networking

Ansible and Juniper Junos – First Steps

On the previous post, I proposed a quick and dirty method to provision an Ansible control node, using Vagrant and VirtualBox. But, if you really want to spin the volume up to 11, the best is to work in a dedicated Linux machine.

On this lab, I will be using Linux Mint, which is a Ubuntu derivate, but most examples will work on any Linux distribution.

First, install Ansible if already don’t have it. There are two easy methods.

  • Using pip to install the ansible Python module. You’ll need a working installation of Python2 (altough the latests releases of Ansible works with Python 3 too). Also, pip has to be installed and on path.

    $ pip install ansible
  • Using apt by adding the Ansible ppa repository and offload all the work to the system package manager.

    $ sudo apt-add-repository ppa:ansible/ansible
    $ sudo apt-get update
    $ sudo apt install ansible

I preffer the last one and leave apt handle all the job, because the ppa repository is usually up-to-date with the latest release.

Once installed, check your setup with ansible --version or ansible localhost -m setup.

Ansible manages Junos using NETFCONF over SSH. In order to be able to connect to Junos via Ansible, both SSH and NETCONF services has to be enabled on the remote host.

SSH can be used for sending raw commands using the junos_command module, but NETCONF is definetly more versatile and supports the whose set of Ansible modules, which you can see here.

To use NETCONF, you will need an additional Python module in your Ansible control node.

$ pip install ncclient

And to enable SSH and NETCONF in your Juniper host , do the following. Probably you already have SSH enabled on your router so you can ignore that setting.

admin> edit  
Entering configuration mode
[edit]
admin# set system services ssh 
admin# set system services netconf ssh 
[edit]
admin# commit 
commit complete

Building the Ansible Inventory

Ansible inventory files can use many formats, depending on the plugins you have. The two main formats are INI files, and YAML.

INI-style Inventory

[junos]
192.168.15.194

[junos:vars]
ansible_connection=netconf
ansible_network_os=junos
ansible_user=admin
ansible_password=Password$1

YAML Inventory

all:
  hosts:
    "192.168.15.194":
  vars:
    ansible_connection: netconf
    ansible_network_os: junos
    ansible_user: admin
    ansible_password: Password$1

Both files represent the same set of information on a different style. Personally, I preffer the YAML notation because it is more human-friendly and readeable, and it allows you to learn YAML which is used on many other automation and orchestration tools.

What does this means

all:
  hosts:
    "192.168.15.194":

all: stands for all hosts and its always required. All hosts on an Ansible inventory belongs to at least two groups, all and ungrouped. All groups of course, all hosts, and ungrouped contains all hosts which don’t belong to another specific group besides all.

hosts: specifies the start position for the hosts. Hosts groups can be then written like:

mendoza:
   hosts:
     "192.168.15.194":
     core.thisnetwork.net:

Hosts groups can share a set of variables, which provide information for the Ansible modules. For this example, as the vars section is a direct children of the allgroup, these variables will apply to all hosts in the inventory.

vars:
     ansible_connection: netconf
     ansible_network_os: junos
     ansible_user: admin
     ansible_password: Password$1

The Junos modules for Ansible use the netconf connection, which uses SSH and NETCONF, so ensure to allow TCP/22 and TCP/830 on your rules.

Although a fixed inventory file with manually added hosts can be enough for some users, on future entries we’ll set up a dynamic inventory calling a source of truth like Netbox, or a monitoring system like Zabbix.

Testing our setup

The real fun with Ansible is on ansible-playbook, but first let’s fire up an Ansible module to warm up your Ansible-fu.

$ ansible -m junos_facts -i juniper-hosts.yml all
  • -m junos_facts instructs Ansible to use the junos_facts module
  • juniper-hosts.yml is our previously configured inventory file
  • all tells Ansible the group of hosts inside the inventory to use

If everythig works allright, this will output a long JSON with a bunch of information about your device.

192.168.15.195 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "ansible_net_api": "netconf", 
        "ansible_net_filesystems": [
            "/dev/md0.uzip", 
            "devfs", 
            "/dev/gpt/junos", 
            "devfs", 
            "/dev/md1.uzip", 
            "/dev/md2.uzip", 
            "tmpfs", 
            "procfs", 
            "/dev/ada1s1e", 
            "/dev/ada1s1f", 
            "/dev/md3.uzip", 
            "/dev/md4.uzip", 
            "/dev/md5.uzip", 
            "/dev/md6.uzip", 
            "/dev/md7.uzip", 
            "/dev/md8.uzip", 
            "/dev/md9.uzip", 
            "/dev/md10.uzip", 
            "/dev/md11.uzip", 
            "/packages/mnt/junos-libs-compat32/usr/lib32", 
            "/packages/mnt/os-libs-compat32-10/usr/lib32", 
            "/packages/mnt/os-compat32/libexec", 
            "/var/jails/rest-api", 
            "/dev/md12", 
            "/dev/md13.uzip", 
            "/dev/md14.uzip", 
            "/dev/md15.uzip", 
            "/dev/md16.uzip", 
            "/dev/md17.uzip", 
            "/dev/md18.uzip", 
            "/dev/md19.uzip", 
            "/dev/md20.uzip", 
            "/dev/md21.uzip", 
            "/dev/md22.uzip", 
            "/dev/md23.uzip", 
            "/dev/md24.uzip", 
            "/dev/md25.uzip", 
            "/dev/md26.uzip", 
            "/dev/md27.uzip", 
            "/dev/md28.uzip", 
            "tmpfs", 
            "junosprocfs"
        ], 
        "ansible_net_gather_network_resources": [], 
        "ansible_net_gather_subset": [
            "hardware", 
            "default", 
            "interfaces"
        ], 
        "ansible_net_has_2RE": false, 
        "ansible_net_hostname": "None", 
        "ansible_net_interfaces": {
            ".local.": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unlimited", 
                "type": "Loopback"
            }, 
            "cbp0": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "00:05:86:cc:c1:11", 
                "mtu": "9192", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unspecified", 
                "type": "Ethernet"
            }, 
            "demux0": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "9192", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unspecified", 
                "type": "Software-Pseudo"
            }, 
            "dsc": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unspecified", 
                "type": "Software-Pseudo"
            }, 
            "em1": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:cf:9b:01", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "1000mbps", 
                "type": "Ethernet"
            }, 
            "esi": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unlimited", 
                "type": "Software-Pseudo"
            }, 
            "fxp0": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:cf:9b:00", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "down", 
                "speed": "Unspecified", 
                "type": "Ethernet"
            }, 
            "ge-0/0/0": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:f6:47:02", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "down", 
                "speed": "1000mbps", 
                "type": null
            }, 
            "ge-0/0/1": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:f6:47:03", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "down", 
                "speed": "1000mbps", 
                "type": null
            }, 
            "ge-0/0/2": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:f6:47:04", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "down", 
                "speed": "1000mbps", 
                "type": null
            }, 
            "ge-0/0/3": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:f6:47:05", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "down", 
                "speed": "1000mbps", 
                "type": null
            }, 
            "ge-0/0/4": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:f6:47:06", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "down", 
                "speed": "1000mbps", 
                "type": null
            }, 
            "ge-0/0/5": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:f6:47:07", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "down", 
                "speed": "1000mbps", 
                "type": null
            }, 
            "ge-0/0/6": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:f6:47:08", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "down", 
                "speed": "1000mbps", 
                "type": null
            }, 
            "ge-0/0/7": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:f6:47:09", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "down", 
                "speed": "1000mbps", 
                "type": null
            }, 
            "ge-0/0/8": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:f6:47:0a", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "down", 
                "speed": "1000mbps", 
                "type": null
            }, 
            "ge-0/0/9": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "0c:b8:15:f6:47:0b", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "1000mbps", 
                "type": null
            }, 
            "gre": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": null, 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unlimited", 
                "type": "GRE"
            }, 
            "ipip": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": null, 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unlimited", 
                "type": "IPIP"
            }, 
            "irb": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "00:05:86:cc:c8:f0", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unspecified", 
                "type": "Ethernet"
            }, 
            "jsrv": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "00:05:86:cc:c8:c0", 
                "mtu": "1514", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unspecified", 
                "type": "Ethernet"
            }, 
            "lc-0/0/0": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "0", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "800mbps", 
                "type": "Unspecified"
            }, 
            "lo0": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unspecified", 
                "type": "Loopback"
            }, 
            "lsi": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unlimited", 
                "type": "Software-Pseudo"
            }, 
            "mtun": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": null, 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unlimited", 
                "type": "Multicast-GRE"
            }, 
            "pfe-0/0/0": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "0", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "800mbps", 
                "type": "Unspecified"
            }, 
            "pfh-0/0/0": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "0", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "800mbps", 
                "type": "Unspecified"
            }, 
            "pimd": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": null, 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unlimited", 
                "type": "PIMD"
            }, 
            "pime": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": null, 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unlimited", 
                "type": "PIME"
            }, 
            "pip0": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "00:05:86:cc:c8:b0", 
                "mtu": "9192", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unspecified", 
                "type": "Ethernet"
            }, 
            "pp0": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "1532", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unspecified", 
                "type": "PPPoE"
            }, 
            "rbeb": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unlimited", 
                "type": "Software-Pseudo"
            }, 
            "tap": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unlimited", 
                "type": "Software-Pseudo"
            }, 
            "vtep": {
                "admin-status": "up", 
                "macaddress": "Unspecified", 
                "mtu": "Unlimited", 
                "oper-status": "up", 
                "speed": "Unlimited", 
                "type": "Software-Pseudo"
            }
        }, 
        "ansible_net_memfree_mb": 179384, 
        "ansible_net_memtotal_mb": 2058336, 
        "ansible_net_model": "vmx", 
        "ansible_net_modules": [
            {
                "name": "Midplane"
            }, 
            {
                "description": "RE-VMX", 
                "name": "Routing Engine 0"
            }, 
            {
                "description": "VMX SCB", 
                "name": "CB 0"
            }, 
            {
                "description": "VMX SCB", 
                "name": "CB 1"
            }, 
            {
                "chassis_sub_module": null, 
                "description": "Virtual FPC", 
                "name": "FPC 0"
            }
        ], 
        "ansible_net_python_version": "2.7.15+", 
        "ansible_net_routing_engines": {
            "0": {
                "cpu_background": "0", 
                "cpu_background1": "0", 
                "cpu_background2": "0", 
                "cpu_background3": "0", 
                "cpu_idle": "61", 
                "cpu_idle1": "94", 
                "cpu_idle2": "95", 
                "cpu_idle3": "95", 
                "cpu_interrupt": "2", 
                "cpu_interrupt1": "1", 
                "cpu_interrupt2": "1", 
                "cpu_interrupt3": "1", 
                "cpu_system": "27", 
                "cpu_system1": "4", 
                "cpu_system2": "3", 
                "cpu_system3": "3", 
                "cpu_user": "10", 
                "cpu_user1": "1", 
                "cpu_user2": "1", 
                "cpu_user3": "1", 
                "last_reboot_reason": "Router rebooted after a normal shutdown.", 
                "load_average_fifteen": "0.62", 
                "load_average_five": "0.73", 
                "load_average_one": "0.75", 
                "mastership_priority": "master (default)", 
                "mastership_state": "master", 
                "memory_buffer_utilization": "13", 
                "memory_dram_size": "2010 MB", 
                "memory_installed_size": "(2048 MB installed)", 
                "model": "RE-VMX", 
                "slot": "0", 
                "start_time": "2019-11-26 12:06:10 UTC", 
                "status": "OK", 
                "up_time": "11 hours, 46 minutes, 19 seconds"
            }
        }, 
        "ansible_net_serialnum": "VM5DDBEA932E", 
        "ansible_net_system": "junos", 
        "ansible_net_version": "17.1R1.8", 
        "ansible_network_resources": {}, 
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    }, 
    "changed": false
}

If you take a closer look, you’ll find out that I am using a vMX appliance, can you spot where is that information?

What if we could use this and more information to gather more useful data about our router, and execute actions of provision new configuration depending on the gathered data?

If Ansible modules are the tools in your workshop, playbooks are your instruction manuals, and your inventory of hosts are your raw material.

The First Playbook

Playbooks are expressed in YAML and are composed of one or more ‘plays’ in a list. The goal of a play is to map a group of hosts to some well defined roles, represented by things ansible calls tasks. At a basic level, a task is nothing more than a call to an ansible module.

Go ahead and create a new file, juniper.yml or whatever you like, and put the following inside:

---
- hosts: all
  gather_facts: no

  tasks:

  - name: Get Configuration
    junos_command:
      commands:
        - show configuration

Going from top to bottom this playbook tells Ansible to:

  • hosts: all, use the all hosts from the inventory
  • gather_facts: no, don’t gather any facts for now. More on this later.
  • tasks:, this is the list of all the tasks I want you to do.
  • - name:, this is the name of the task. It starts with a - because it’s a list, even if it has only a single entry
  • junos_command:use this module for this task, like -m junos_command. This module, like most, supports a set of parameters which you can see here, and they are below!
  • commands: this is the list of commands to execute
  • - show configuration: this is one of the commands

Now, run ansible-playbook juniper.yml -i juniper-hosts.yml. This will run your playbook, using all the hosts on the previously defined juniper-hosts.yml inventory.

$ ansible-playbook juniper.yml -i juniper-hosts.yml

PLAY [all] ***********************************************************************************************************************************************************************

TASK [Get Configuration] *********************************************************************************************************************************************************
[WARNING]: Platform linux on host 192.168.15.195 is using the discovered Python interpreter at /usr/bin/python, but future installation of another Python interpreter could
change this. See https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/2.9/reference_appendices/interpreter_discovery.html for more information.

ok: [192.168.15.195]

PLAY RECAP ***********************************************************************************************************************************************************************
192.168.15.195             : ok=1    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0   

Well, that was fun but.. there is nothing useful here, besides a warning! In fact, Ansible connected sucessfully to the router, and retrieved the configuration. We didn’t instructed it to show the configuration to us.

Modify your playbook so it looks like this:

---
- hosts: all
  gather_facts: no

  tasks:

  - name: Get Configuration
    junos_command:
      commands:
        - show configuration
    register: config

  - name: Show Config
    debug: var=config

We added an additional line to the first task, register: config, which saves the result of the task in a variable called config. This name can be whatever you like.

There is also an additional task named Show Config, with a debug: var=config instruction, which outputs the config variable.

Run the playbook once again like you did before, and check the result. Of course it will depend on your configuration. On my vMX, which is almost blank, and just using DHCP for a couple interfaces, the result was this.

$ ansible-playbook juniper.yml -i juniper-hosts.yml

PLAY [all] *****************************************************************************

TASK [Get Configuration] ***************************************************************
[WARNING]: Platform linux on host 192.168.15.195 is using the discovered Python
interpreter at /usr/bin/python, but future installation of another Python interpreter
could change this. See
https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/2.9/reference_appendices/interpreter_discovery.html
for more information.

ok: [192.168.15.195]

TASK [Show Config] *********************************************************************
ok: [192.168.15.195] => {
    "config": {
        "ansible_facts": {
            "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
        }, 
        "changed": false, 
        "failed": false, 
        "stdout": [
            "## Last changed: 2019-11-26 19:02:46 UTC\nversion 17.1R1.8;\nsystem {\n    root-authentication {\n        encrypted-password \"$6$5LBS/EfQ$tL9utW2Aj4T56SfJUxdnVaF/.RIbaZ65keFn1SbCgOTi6r.LDiGt3FvvoP2WuxuuosVtx0RobNk67obTMeNgF.\";\n    }\n    scripts {\n        inactive: language python;\n    }\n    login {\n        user admin {\n            uid 2000;\n            class super-user;\n            authentication {\n                encrypted-password \"$6$9YynK9hD$Is6rEd7WNnEYGF7q2MqQJoRU/9vGjkQv7Qig.V2WT1905ShVlow4LXKeATM5HR8F1vTwROz2gUpF7z7eCJruo1\";\n            }\n        }\n    }\n    services {\n        ssh;\n        netconf {\n            ssh;\n        }\n    }\n    syslog {\n        user * {\n            any emergency;\n        }\n        file messages {\n            any notice;\n            authorization info;\n        }\n        file interactive-commands {\n            interactive-commands any;\n        }\n    }\n}\ninterfaces {\n    ge-0/0/1 {\n        unit 0 {\n            family inet {\n                dhcp;\n            }\n        }\n    }\n    ge-0/0/9 {\n        unit 0 {\n            family inet {\n                dhcp;\n            }\n        }\n    }\n}"
        ], 
        "stdout_lines": [
            [
                "## Last changed: 2019-11-26 19:02:46 UTC", 
                "version 17.1R1.8;", 
                "system {", 
                "    root-authentication {", 
                "        encrypted-password \"$6$5LBS/EfQ$tL9utW2Aj4T56SfJUxdnVaF/.RIbaZ65keFn1SbCgOTi6r.LDiGt3FvvoP2WuxuuosVtx0RobNk67obTMeNgF.\";", 
                "    }", 
                "    scripts {", 
                "        inactive: language python;", 
                "    }", 
                "    login {", 
                "        user admin {", 
                "            uid 2000;", 
                "            class super-user;", 
                "            authentication {", 
                "                encrypted-password \"$6$9YynK9hD$Is6rEd7WNnEYGF7q2MqQJoRU/9vGjkQv7Qig.V2WT1905ShVlow4LXKeATM5HR8F1vTwROz2gUpF7z7eCJruo1\";", 
                "            }", 
                "        }", 
                "    }", 
                "    services {", 
                "        ssh;", 
                "        netconf {", 
                "            ssh;", 
                "        }", 
                "    }", 
                "    syslog {", 
                "        user * {", 
                "            any emergency;", 
                "        }", 
                "        file messages {", 
                "            any notice;", 
                "            authorization info;", 
                "        }", 
                "        file interactive-commands {", 
                "            interactive-commands any;", 
                "        }", 
                "    }", 
                "}", 
                "interfaces {", 
                "    ge-0/0/1 {", 
                "        unit 0 {", 
                "            family inet {", 
                "                dhcp;", 
                "            }", 
                "        }", 
                "    }", 
                "    ge-0/0/9 {", 
                "        unit 0 {", 
                "            family inet {", 
                "                dhcp;", 
                "            }", 
                "        }", 
                "    }", 
                "}"
            ]
        ], 
        "warnings": [
            "Platform linux on host 192.168.15.195 is using the discovered Python interpreter at /usr/bin/python, but future installation of another Python interpreter could change this. See https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/2.9/reference_appendices/interpreter_discovery.html for more information."
        ]
    }
}

PLAY RECAP *****************************************************************************
192.168.15.195             : ok=2    changed=0    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0  

I know we all love show config | display set. Try adding display: set as an additional parameter of junos_command. It should look like this.

    junos_command:
      commands:
        - show configuration
      display: set

Run the playbook again, and your output should be as expected if you ran it on the Junos CLI.

Stay tuned for more posts to learn how to configure Juniper Junos using Ansible.

Categories
Projects

Quick Ansible control node with Vagrant

Ansible is an IT automation tools which can configure systems, deploy files and software and orchestrate almost every possible task you can imagine.

Unlike other configuration management tools like Chef or Puppet, Ansible is agent-less, and does all its magic over SSH. Forget about keeping up client daemons updated and additional certificates. Just use your existing SSH keys, or usernames and passwords.

Due to it agent-less nature, we just need a host to initiate SSH sessions towards the managed hosts. This node is called a control node in the Ansible jargon.

On this post, we’ll catch up with the basics of Vagrant and Ansible. The repository for this post is on https://github.com/baldoarturo/ansible-control-node.

Download VirtualBox

VirtualBox is a general-purpose full virtualizer for x86 hardware, targeted at server, desktop and embedded use. Get it from here.

Get Vagrant

We’ll use Vagrant to quickly spin up a control node, based on a ubuntu/xenial64 box. If you are not familiar with Vagrant, you just need to know it is a tool capable to provision VMs on different hypervisors, using a Vagrantfile a VM template.

First, get Vagrant for your system here, https://www.vagrantup.com/downloads.html, and install it.

Use Git

In order to make everything easier, we’ll init a new git repository to keep track of all the configuration changes. Also, we can push this repository to a remote and clone from wherever we need it, making a portable Ansible control node.

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>git init
Initialized empty Git repository in C:/Users/Arturo/Desktop/ansible-control-node/.git/

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>git config user.name "Arturo Baldo"

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>git config user.email "baldoarturo@gmail.com"

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>

Although everything can be done from a shell, I prefer to use the integrated terminal on VSCode, and make use of the universe of plugins. There is support for Ansible and Ansible Playbooks, Vagrant, a lot more!

Also, even if this post uses a Windows system, everything is reproducible on Linux platforms because all the tools are multiplatform.

Init the Vagrant environment

The Vagrant CLI is self explanatory and easy to understand.

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>vagrant
Usage: vagrant [options] <command> [<args>]

    -v, --version                    Print the version and exit.
    -h, --help                       Print this help.

Common commands:
     box             manages boxes: installation, removal, etc.
     cloud           manages everything related to Vagrant Cloud
     destroy         stops and deletes all traces of the vagrant machine
     global-status   outputs status Vagrant environments for this user
     halt            stops the vagrant machine
     help            shows the help for a subcommand
     init            initializes a new Vagrant environment by creating a Vagrantfile
     login
     package         packages a running vagrant environment into a box
     plugin          manages plugins: install, uninstall, update, etc.
     port            displays information about guest port mappings
     powershell      connects to machine via powershell remoting
     provision       provisions the vagrant machine
     push            deploys code in this environment to a configured destination
     rdp             connects to machine via RDP
     reload          restarts vagrant machine, loads new Vagrantfile configuration
     resume          resume a suspended vagrant machine
     snapshot        manages snapshots: saving, restoring, etc.
     ssh             connects to machine via SSH
     ssh-config      outputs OpenSSH valid configuration to connect to the machine
     status          outputs status of the vagrant machine
     suspend         suspends the machine
     up              starts and provisions the vagrant environment
     upload          upload to machine via communicator
     validate        validates the Vagrantfile
     version         prints current and latest Vagrant version
     winrm           executes commands on a machine via WinRM
     winrm-config    outputs WinRM configuration to connect to the machine

First, run vagrant intit to initialize a new environment.

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>vagrant init
A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now
ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read
the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on
`vagrantup.com` for more information on using Vagrant.

Wait! You have a new file on your git repository. Make it the first commit.

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>git add .

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>git commit -m "First commit"
[master (root-commit) 1416f75] First commit
 1 file changed, 70 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Vagrantfile

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>

On the newly create Vagrantfile, we can set configuration and provisioning options for the VM.

First, replace config.vm.box = "base" with config.vm.box = "ubuntu/xenial64" to use this box.

If you want to see the VM, config vb.gui = true. By default this setting is commented out, so the VM will start in headless mode.

Feel free to customize the VM memory by commenting out the vb.memory = "1024" setting and adjusting it to your needs.

Once you are done, save your changes, commit, execute vagrant up, and watch Vagrant create a brand new VM for you.

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>vagrant up
Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
==> default: Importing base box 'ubuntu/xenial64'...
==> default: Matching MAC address for NAT networking...
==> default: Checking if box 'ubuntu/xenial64' version '20191114.0.0' is up to date...
==> default: Setting the name of the VM: ansible-control-node_default_1574353915423_60685
==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces...
==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration...
    default: Adapter 1: nat
==> default: Forwarding ports...
    default: 22 (guest) => 2222 (host) (adapter 1)
==> default: Running 'pre-boot' VM customizations...
==> default: Booting VM...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    default: SSH address: 127.0.0.1:2222
    default: SSH username: vagrant
    default: SSH auth method: private key
    default: Warning: Connection reset. Retrying...
    default: Warning: Connection aborted. Retrying...
    default: Warning: Remote connection disconnect. Retrying...
    default: 
    default: Vagrant insecure key detected. Vagrant will automatically replace
    default: this with a newly generated keypair for better security.
    default: 
    default: Inserting generated public key within guest...
    default: Removing insecure key from the guest if it's present...
    default: Key inserted! Disconnecting and reconnecting using new SSH key...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!
==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM...
    default: The guest additions on this VM do not match the installed version of
    default: VirtualBox! In most cases this is fine, but in rare cases it can
    default: prevent things such as shared folders from working properly. If you see
    default: shared folder errors, please make sure the guest additions within the
    default: virtual machine match the version of VirtualBox you have installed on
    default: your host and reload your VM.
    default:
    default: Guest Additions Version: 5.1.38
    default: VirtualBox Version: 6.0
==> default: Mounting shared folders...
    default: /vagrant => C:/Users/Arturo/Desktop/ansible-control-node

Well, how do we login into the new VM? Try vagrant ssh

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>vagrant ssh
Welcome to Ubuntu 16.04.6 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.4.0-169-generic x86_64)

 * Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com
 * Management:     https://landscape.canonical.com
 * Support:        https://ubuntu.com/advantage


0 packages can be updated.
0 updates are security updates.

New release '18.04.3 LTS' available.
Run 'do-release-upgrade' to upgrade to it.


vagrant@ubuntu-xenial:~$ whoami
vagrant
vagrant@ubuntu-xenial:~$ 

Type exit and you will return to your system prompt.

You’ll see that you have new items on your directory. A .log file, with the output from Vagrant, and a .vagrant/ directory.

To exclude them from the repository, create a .gitignore, with the following contents.

.vagrant/
*.log

Save and commit.

Provisioning the VM

Return to the Vagrantfile, and add a section like this:

  config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
    apt-get update
    apt-get install software-properties-common -y
    apt-add-repository --yes --update ppa:ansible/ansible
    apt-get install ansible -y
  SHELL

This block instructs Vagrant to execute commands on the shell. First, the package list is updated, then the software-properties-common package is installed. To install Ansible, the ppa:ansible/ansible repository is added, and then Ansible is installed.

Notice the usage of -y to avoid interactive prompts.

Save the file, commit, and run vagrant provision. This will re-provision the VM with the new instructions from the Vagrantfile.

Once Vagrant finishes, connect once again with vagrant ssh, and run ansible --version.

vagrant@ubuntu-xenial:~$ ansible --version
ansible 2.9.1
  config file = /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg
  configured module search path = [u'/home/vagrant/.ansible/plugins/modules', u'/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules']
  ansible python module location = /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/ansible
  executable location = /usr/bin/ansible
  python version = 2.7.12 (default, Oct  8 2019, 14:14:10) [GCC 5.4.0 20160609]

That’s great! We have just installed Ansible on our new VM.

Seek and Destroy

You might wonder, where is this VM? Head to the VirtualBox Manager, and you’ll find it inside.

Here it is!

Without asking anyone.. kill the machine and delete it.

Hard power off
Delete all files

Head back to the console, and you will see that the SSH session has died. Of course, this makes perfect sense as the VM no longer exists.

vagrant@ubuntu-xenial:~$ Connection to 127.0.0.1 closed by remote host.
 Connection to 127.0.0.1 closed.

If you try to run vagrant provision, it will fail, as there is no VM to provision.

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>vagrant provision
==> default: VM not created. Moving on...

But what happens if you run vagrant up once again? Surprise! The VM will be recreated with all the previous configuration settings.

Using Ansible

Well, the VM is ready, Ansible is installed.. now what? Let’s write an inventory file and see what can we do.

I’ll create a simple file to connect to a testing docker instance on 192.168.85.253. No need to worry about ssh keys now, as we are testing, username and password will do the trick.

vagrant@ubuntu-xenial:~$ cat docker
[all:vars]
ansible_connection=ssh
ansible_user=MY_USERNAME
ansible_password=MY_PASSWORD

[docker]
192.168.85.253

The [all:vars] section configures the connection settings for all hosts in the file. The [docker] section contains the lists of hosts, in this case just 192.168.85.253.

Let’s run: ansible -m ping -i docker all, where -m is the module to run, -i is the inventory file, and all is the section of the inventory file which contains the hosts. Notice this is a very special ping.

vagrant@ubuntu-xenial:~$ ansible -m ping -i docker all
[DEPRECATION WARNING]: Distribution Ubuntu 16.04 on host 192.168.15.253 should use /usr/bin/python3, but is using /usr/bin/python for backward compatibility with prior Ansible releases. A future Ansible release
 will default to using the discovered platform python for this host. See https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/2.9/reference_appendices/interpreter_discovery.html for more information. This feature will be removed   
in version 2.12. Deprecation warnings can be disabled by setting deprecation_warnings=False in ansible.cfg.
192.168.15.253 | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    }, 
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"
}

Whoa! That definetly doesn’t look like a ICMP ping. First, this is an old box about to be decomissioned, so it has been very unmantained. Ansible warns us about an old version of Python, and a old version of Ansible which was installed previously on the remote hosts.

Now, try ansible -m setup -i docker all. Be aware this will throw a ton of data to you. The setup module gathers data about the host.

What it does and how does it, is documented here.

Categories
Networking

Introduction to NetOps

I am glad to have been invited to participate in the Introduction to NetOps course dictated by the ISOC. This course is a major step getting people involved in network automation and Unix/Linux/BSD technologies.

The Internet Society (ISOC) was founded in 1992 by a number of people involved with the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and provides an organizational home for and financial support for the Internet standards process.

The Internet Society supports the work of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to create open standards for the Internet.

Categories
Books Projects

101 Labs – Linux LPIC1 is out

I am the Technical Editor for the new Paul Browning book, 101 Labs – Linux LPIC1.

Experts agree that we retain only 10% of what we read but 90% of what we do. Perhaps this explains why the global pass rate for most IT exams is a ghastly 40%.

101 Labs’ mission is to turn you into an IT expert by doing instead of reading. Using free software and free trials, the labs take you by the hand and walk you through every aspect of the protocols and technologies you will encounter in your IT career.

Configuration tips and tricks are shared with you as well as how to avoid the common mistakes many novice engineers make, which can quickly become career-ending.

You can get a free preview or buy the ebook below.

101 Labs – Linux LPIC1 takes you through the beginner exam syllabus, the LPI Linux Essentials in case you are a novice and want to learn the basics of Linux or simply just brush up your skills. You then tackle all the main LPIC1 topics broken into the two exams 101 and 102.

Categories
MikroTik Networking Projects

Upgrading a MikroTik CHR Cluster

I upgraded a CHR cluster with the main objectives of reduce costs, improve network redundancy and provide an easy administration for CHR instances. As explained in previous posts, CHR can be run on many popular hypervisors, and most users are having great success using Hyper-V Failover clusters or vSphere HA to provide highly available routers without depending on VRRP or other gateway redundancy protocols.

These virtual routers currently provide two main services besides routing for ISP customers. They act as PPPoE concentrator for FTTH users, and provide traffic shaping and policing depending on the customer service plan.

Server Hardware

For this node, I will use a 32 core Dell R730, with 32 GB of RAM, and a 500 GB RAID 10 storage. On future post, new hosts will be added to the cluster.

Unracking the server

Network Conectivity

This server comes with a 4 port Gigabit Ethernet NIC, which could be used without any issues with the ixgbe driver.

First idea was to use two ports in a LACP bundle, and the other two in separate port groups.

I had previous Netflow analysis where I saw a predictable traffic behavior, where most of the bandwidth usage was going from and to a CDN peer of the ISP network. Customers had a mix of public and private addresses of the Class B segment, and they were being moved to CG-NAT ranges. In other words, traffic from a specific set of addresses were going from and to a specific set of addresses.

Why not configure two port-channels, instead of using separate port groups? I tested and due to the nature of the IP addressing on the customer side of the routers, none of the available hashing modes for LACP allowed to achieve a decent distribution on both links of the port-channel.

So, for the purposes of this cluster, I added an Intel X520 dual SFP+ card, providing 20 Gbps conectivity to the CHR instances. Peak bandwidth usage was around 4200 Mbps, so this card is more than enough to allow for future grow.

Installing the Intel X520 NIC

The Intel X520 only supports Intel branded SFP modules, and this behavior can be tuned configuring the kernel module. However, for this particular scenario, where both ports will be connected to a top of rack Dell Force10 S4048-ON switch, I choosed to use DAC cables to keep things simple.

DAC cables on the switch
Connecting the server

The server is using ESXi 6.5 for the hypervisor. After booting, I noticed the NICs were being recognized as vmnic5 and vmnic6, but they were using the ixgbe driver and only establishing links at 1 Gbps.

I downloaded the ixgben driver which is provided by VMware itself here and uploaded it to ESXi via SFTP.

For all my SFTP needs, my tool of choice always is Bitwise SSH client.

Once uploaded, I installed the offline bundle with the following command line.

[root@esxi] esxcli software vib install -d "/complete/path/to/the/driver/bundle"

Then I followed the KB article to disable the native ixgbe driver and use the new one. First, I placed the host on maintenance mode, and then I executedthe following to disable the driver.

[root@esxi] esxcli system module set --enabled=false --module=ixgbe

After a reboot, the new ixgben driver was loaded, and the NICs were establishing links at 10 Gbps.

I added the new NICs to the previously created virtual switches, checked the correct assignments of port groups, and then migrated the VMs to this host.

Categories
MikroTik Networking Projects

Building a network on Entre Ríos

It is always nice to fly. I took two flights, the first one with a little stop at Aeroparque (AEP), and then a short one to Paraná city (PRA). The skies were just beautiful.

Travelling MDZ to AEP

My current company is establishing operations on Entre Rios province, where a we are initiating a brand-new ISP service for the towns of Crespo, Libertador San Martin, and Paraná City. This was the main task among another small consulting and assistance.

My first time seeing the mighty Paraná river

Connecting People

Service is provided with two providers, and BGP sessions must be established with both to announce a /24 prefix of our AS, and probably receive just a default route from the upstream. There is no need to use the full table- yet. Both providers has approximately the same AS-PATH.

We’ll use a MikroTik CCR1036-8G-2S+ as the border router. Although it has SFP+ ports to allow 10 Gbps operation, at the moment the links will be negotiated using SFP modules at 1000 Mbps.

Main customer will be directly connected to this router using copper at 1 Gbps. They are using a MikroTik CRS326-24G-2S+ for their edge router, which will be enough for their 100 Mbps service. They provide us co-location too, so I installed the core router on their shelter, which is backed up by dual A/C systems and dual UPS-rectifier systems.

The new router racked and powered up
We’ll have some mate while waiting for the upstream provider port to go into no shutdown

Once the upstream was go, I was able to see they were in fact sending us the full BGP table, which we don’t need yet, so a couple route filters were configured to use put only a default gateway on the main routing table. As the default route was configured as a static one, the route filter policy was as easy as discard all BGP inputs.

[rootmin@ROUTER-EDUC.AR-PARANA] > routing filter export 
# jun/18/2019 16:24:37 by RouterOS 6.42.6
#
/routing filter
add action=discard chain=dynamic-in protocol=bgp

On this site there was also an Ubiquiti AirFiber 11X wireless link to reach Libertador San Martín town. Both radios were previously installed but not configured, so I connected to the radio and the site and configured it as Master. We traveled to the remote end, configured the radio as Slave and it worked just fine. Ubiquiti is getting up to date with their firmwares and UI, and it has became pretty straight forward to get a link working, even for someone with little or none networking skills.

¿Do you think this ease-of-use is making the job easier for us, or is it the start point of a madness of wireless spectrum usage?

From this node at Libertador, we installed two single-mode fiber lines, one to connect the town Hospital and another for the town University. MikroTik CRS326-24G-2S+ switches were installed at each site to be used as CPEs.

All monitoring, reporting and backup systems were previously configured at our NOC, so that was ll for us on the site.

Watching cars go by

I also assisted a brand new urban surveillance camera installation on the entrance of the Raúl Uranga – Carlos Sylvestre Begnis Subfluvial Tunnel. The objective was to read license plates on this strategic points, which is one of the few exits outside the Paraná river, and the one which has the most vehicle traffic.

Previously we had selected a Hikvision DS-2CD4A26FWD-IZHS8/P (yep, that’s the model name) camera which was already installed by Policía of Entre Ríos technician. This camera was specifically designed for licence-plate recognition (LPR). It supports OCR on hardware and works in very low light conditions, as low as 0.0027 lux.

Traces of Paraná City

I stayed at Hotel Howard Johnson Plaza Resort & Casino Mayorazgo, and I encourage you to visit it. The rooms are lovely and the staff is excellent.

My view from the hotel room

Be sure to schedule time to walk on the Paraná river borders, visit the Martiniano Leguizamón historic town museum and enjoy yourself. This is a beautiful city.

Blue skies at Crespo, Entre Ríos
Categories
MikroTik Networking Projects

Using The Dude on MikroTik CHR

The Dude network monitor is RouterOS package intended to manage a network environment. It automatically scan all devices within specified subnets, draw and layout a network maps, monitor services, and alert you in case of problems.

Previous versions of The Dude were developed as Windows x86 software, but later versions went through a full rebuild, and now it is distributed as a RouterOS package. This comes handy as the same RouterOS instance can be linked to the network, eliminating the the need for additional VPNs on servers or gateways. Instead, all tunneling can be done inside the CHR instance.

The Windows versions also had a web GUI which was, awful. For all the new editions, you’ll need a software client available on https://download.mikrotik.com/routeros/6.43.14/dude-install-6.43.14.exe

It will update itself whenever you connect to a newer RouterOS version. Just be sure to run it as administrator on W10.

Installing

Get the CHR package from https://download.mikrotik.com/routeros/6.43.14/dude-6.43.14.npk.

Once downloaded, upload it to the CHR instance via Winbox drag-and-drop, FTP client, or just download it from inside chr:

Downloading from CHR

Reboot the CHR instance, and you will find the new Dude menu inside Winbox.

New Dude menu

Head to Dude > Settings and tick Enabled to enable the server. A few folders will be created on the filesystem, and the server will be ready to accept connections on port 8291. The previous x86 based versions of Dude used port TCP/2210 or TCP/2211, but on this new integrated RouterOS package, all the management is handled on the same port as Winbox.

If you still don’t have the client, get it on https://download.mikrotik.com/routeros/6.43.14/dude-install-6.43.14.exe.

One you connect, the following window should appear by default. You can run a discover for multiple networks and let Dude map your network for you, but it will only disconver layer 3 adyancencies. In order to have complete control over the monitoring, I suggest to build your backbone manually and let the autodiscovery handle your management VLANs/VRFs.

Categories
MikroTik Networking

Introduction to MikroTik CHR

MikroTik Cloud Hosted Router (CHR) is a RouterOS version intended to be used as a virtual machine instance.

It runs on x86-64-bit architecture and can be deployed on most hypervisors such as:

  • VMWare, ESXi, Player and Workstation
  • Microsoft Hyper-V
  • Oracle VirtualBox
  • KVM‌
  • And others, like Xen, but I haven’t tested it yet

Some special requeriments apply depending on the subyacent hypervisor.

ESXi

Network adapters must be vmxnet3 or E1000‌. Just use vmxnet3 to get the most. Disks must be IDE, VMware paravirtual SCSI, LSI Logic SAS or LSI Logic Parallel.

Hyper-V

Network adapters must be Network adapter or Legacy Network adapter .Disks IDE or SCSI.

Qemu/KVM

Virtio, E1000 or vmxnet3 NICs. IDE, Sata or Virtio disks.

VirtualBox

Networking using E1000 or rtl8193, and disks with IDE, SATA, SCSI or SAS interfaces.

Licensing

The CHR images have full RouterOS features enabled by default, but they use a different licensing model than other RouterOS versions.

Paid licenses

p1

p1 (perpetual-1), which allows CHR to run indefinitely. It comes with a limit of 1Gbps upload per interface. All the rest of the features provided by CHR are available without restrictions. It can be upgraded p1 to p10 or p-unlimited.

p10

p10 (perpetual-10), which also allows CHR to run indefinitely, with a 10Gbps upload limit per interface. All features are available without restrictions. It can be upgraded to p-unlimited.

p-unlimited (really?)

The p-unlimited (perpetual-unlimited) license level allows CHR to run indefinitely. It is the highest tier license and it has no enforced limitations.

Free licenses (yay!)

There are two ways to use and try CHR free of charge.

free

The free license level allows CHR to run indefinitely, with a limit of 1Mbps upload per interface. All the rest of the features have no restrictions. This level comes activated by default on all images.

60-day trial

Th p1/p10/pU licenses can be tested with a 60 days trial.

Cool. How can i try it?

The easiest way to spin up a working instance of CHR is using the OVA appliance provided by MikroTik.

https://download2.mikrotik.com/routeros/6.43.14/chr-6.43.14.ova

Deployment on ESXi

Once downloaded, the OVA can be used to deploy a new instance. I’ll be using ESXi on this example. The OVA comes preconfigured with a single network adapter, but more interfaces can be added on a later stage.

Creating new VM from OVA template
Setting VM name, and uploading OVA file
I’ll use local storage for it
Thin provisioned disks, and a previously configured VM network
Review everything, and deploy

Initial Configuration

After the VM boots, log in via CLI with the default credentials:

  • Username: admin
  • Password: none

CHR comes with a free licence‌ by default, limited to 1Mbps upload limit. This is handy for lab purposes, or low traffic scenarios like stand-alone DHCP servers.

A DHCP client is enabled by default on the single existing ether1 interface. Use any of the following methods to find out the adquired address.

/ip dhcp-client print
/ip address print

Let’s get a trial licence. You will need the credentials for your MikroTik account. If you don’t have a MikroTik account, get one here.

The CHR instance will also need Internet access, so be sure to connect the virtual NIC to a VM network where it can make its way to the outside.

[admin@CHR] > sys license renew account=your@account.com password=yourpassword level=

Level ::= p-unlimited | p1 | p10

Once you request a trial license, check the status with

[admin@CHR] > sys lic print
        system-id: 0ywIRMYrtGA
            level: p1
  next-renewal-at: may/05/2019 17:59:59
      deadline-at: jun/04/2019 17:59:59

We’ll install The Dude on the next post, and configure it for some custom monitoring.

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Machine Learning – Weighted Train Data

Last post talked about an introduction to Machine Learning and how outcomes can be predicted using sklearn’s LogisticReggression.

Sometimes, the input data could require additional processing to prefer certain classes of information, that it considered more valuable or more representative to the outcome.

The LogisticRegression model allows to set the preference, or weight, at the time of being created, or later when being fitted.

The data used on the previous entry had four main classes: DRAFT, ACT, SLAST and FLAST. Once it is encoded and fitted, it can be selected by its index. I prefer to initialize some mnemonics selectors to ease the coding and make the entire code more human friendly.

x_columns_names = ['DRAFT', 'ACT', 'SLAST', 'FLAST']
y_columns_names = ['PREDICTION']

# Indexes for columns, used for weighting
DRAFT = 0
ACT = 1
SLAST = 2
FLAST = 3

# Weights
DRAFT_WEIGHT = 1
ACT_WEIGHT = 1
SLAST_WEIGHT = 1
FLAST_WEIGHT = 1

The model can be initialized lated using the following method, where the class_weight parameter is used referencing the previous helpers.

model = LogisticRegression(
    solver='lbfgs',
    multi_class='multinomial',
    max_iter=5000,
    class_weight={
        DRAFT: DRAFT_WEIGHT,
        ACT: ACT_WEIGHT,
        SLAST: SLAST_WEIGHT,
        FLAST: FLAST_WEIGHT,
    })