UFiber v4 Python Client

Yeah, I finally remembered to make a post about this. I know it will like as a copy-paste of the previous one, because, in fact it is.

Ok, if you have been following the series, you should already know that I equally love and hate UFiber OLTs. They are affordable, deliver a lot of bang for the buck, and have an awful GUI.

Well, the GUI is lovely on v4.

Python in the middle

I wrote a quick and dirty client which acts as a sort of middleware between the HTTP inteface of the OLT and you.

It allows to provision non existing ONUs, GPON profiles, WiFi profiles, retrieve active ONU status and general configuration.

Take a look to it on https://github.com/baldoarturo/ufiber-client-4, and feel free to contribute if you want to.

How to help

It would be awesome to have docs 😀

Are you a pydoc master? Let’a add docstrings.

Do you have an OLT for me to test? Ping me and we can set up a VPN.


This is the core of the project. It uses the OLTClient class to provide a middleware between you and the HTTP interface of the OLT.

Initialize a new OLTClient instance with:

client = OLTClient(host='', username='ubnt', password='ubnt', debug_level=logging.DEBUG)

Required params are only host, and credentials.

The initialization will handle the login for you, altough you can call the login() method manually.

If the OLT is network reachable, and you have provided the right credentials, and the OLT GUI is alive and well, you should be ready to start.

What changes on v4

Well, UBNT got rid of the GPON profiles. 🙁

This software is intented to give you an alternative by keeping profiles as JSON in the ./profiles folder.

You can copy the template.json file and make your way using it as a starting point. It should be self descriptive.

There is an schema.json which validates your profile before pushing changes into the OLT.

UFiber Python Client

Ok, if you have been following the series, you should already know that I equally love and hate UFiber OLTs. They are affordable, deliver a lot of bang for the buck, and have an awful GUI.

Please, be aware that this can change for better or worse in the future, and at the time I’m writing this the latest firmware is v3.1.3. I trust in you UBNT, hope you can sort out this and give us a better product. I’ll keep my fingers crossed.

Python in the middle

I wrote a quick and dirty client which acts as a sort of middleware between the HTTP inteface of the OLT and you.

It allows to provision non existing ONUs, GPON profiles, WiFi profiles, retrieve active ONU status and general configuration.

Take a look to it on https://github.com/baldoarturo/ufiber-client, and feel free to contribute if you want to.

Edited on Aug 15 2020: I did the same for firmware version 4, which is cleaner and fixes a lot of bugs. Stay tuned!


This is a quick dirty project built to provide a quick dirty client for Ubiquiti UFiber OLTs, using firmware version 3.x

There is also a CLI attempt, but I couldn’t find any ready to use packages to build a decent CLI.

More info about what am I doing this is on the following entries:


This is the core of the project. It uses the OLTCLient class to provide a middleware between you and the HTTP interface of the olt.

Initialize a new OLTClient instance with:

client = olt.OLTClient(host, username, password)

The initialization will handle the login for you, altough you can call the login() method manually.

If the OLT is network reacheable, and you have provided the right credentials, and the OLT WEB GUI is alive and well, you should be ready to start.

You can also connect using cli.py:

$ /cli.py
UFiber Client for fw version 3.1.3
UFiber> help

Documented commands (type help <topic>):
connect  help  onu  quit  show

UFiber> connect
Logging to ...
Connection OK


In a previous post we took a quick look to the Ubiquiti UFiber OLT. As always, UBNT tries to offer a non expensive solution to provide last-mile conectivity for end users. I am using non-expensive because UBNT gear is not cheap. Yeah, it can be affordable, but you only get what you pay for.

We saw that the command line is very limited, even when the software is a fork of Vyatta. There is no way to get ONUs provisioned from the command line, so forgot about Ansible (we love Ansible), netmiko, and other SSH clients tools to ease your life.

UBNT wants you to use the web GUI, period. They offer a dockerized management system called UNMS, which really comes handy after you have provisioned your customers.

Both you and me, as network operators, know that provisioning customers is one of the more boring tasks, but is is still a critical one. Fast and precise provisioning translates in more customers, more stability, faster troubleshooting, and peace of mind.

Yeah, SONAR exists, but not all operators can work with their pricing and technology supports. And don’t even think to integrate billing if you are using electronic invoicing with AFIP in Argentina.

If you are still here, don’t give up. If there is a will, there is a way.

Under the hood

The OLT has a web GUI served by HTTPS, with a self-signed certificate, on port 443. There is no easy way to use a proper certificate here, but well, it’s something.

If you are not authenticated, this is what waits for you in the URL root.

Looks like a login screen

I want to know if this is a standard HTML form. And indeed it is.

<form id="LoginForm" method="post" class="ui-form">
    <input id="Username" name="username" class="text-input" type="text" placeholder="Username" autocapitalize="off" autocorrection="off">
    <input id="Password" name="password" class="text-input" type="password" placeholder="Password">
    <input id="LoginButton" class="submit-input ui-button ui-widget ui-state-default ui-corner-all" type="submit" value="Login" role="button" aria-disabled="false">

What happens when we log in? I’m using Chrome version 81 and something, let’s open devtools to see the network activity.


Request URL:
Request Method:
Status Code:
303 See Other
Remote Address:

Request Headers

Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,/;q=0.8,application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.9
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br
Accept-Language: es,en;q=0.9
Cache-Control: max-age=0
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Length: 32
Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
Cookie: PHPSESSID=5da99950e9f74ad8b727f219c9e41d76; X-CSRF-TOKEN=9f0c78e2ea8994b39834e0241466c21b68a28df59bf98364ece91dcd183bdab5; beaker.session.id=29fdb5243db8446f81f75587c9c2a722
DNT: 1
Host: x.x.x.x
Origin: https://x.x.x.x
Referer: https://x.x.x.x/
Sec-Fetch-Dest: document
Sec-Fetch-Mode: navigate
Sec-Fetch-Site: same-origin
Sec-Fetch-User: ?1
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/83.0.4103.116 Safari/537.36


Content-Length: 0
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Date: Fri, 02 Jan 2015 08:54:30 GMT
Location: https://x.x.x.x/
Server: Server
Set-Cookie: PHPSESSID=a24b5cbbd6874a1eb09c2d086a93efc6
Set-Cookie: X-CSRF-TOKEN=6f13035a0b7aa4b375e6798c7c60f12e805ecea8c74a3306da81c710e6a3701b
Set-Cookie: beaker.session.id=a24b5cbbd6874a1eb09c2d086a93efc6; httponly; Path=/; secure

Form Data

username: ubnt
password: ubnt

So, this is a standard POST. And we got a cookie.

This can be translated to Python by using the request module.

host = 'olt.ubnt'
url = 'https://{host}'.format(host=host)

USER_AGENT = 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/81.0.4044.138 Safari/537.36'

    'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded',
    'User-Agent': USER_AGENT,

form_data = {
    'username': username,
    'password': password,
response = requests.post(

Good enough for me. Of course this should be into a try/catch structure, but ymmv.

Shut up and take my ONUs

So, we are logged in. What about ONU configuration? The GUI allows to update firware, but this is done automatically starting from software version 3.1.3. We can also set many parameters of the ONU configuration, and provision them via OMCI, but the ONU should already exist in the ONU list.

Configuring existing ONUs

There is no way to add non-existing ONUs to the configuration, which makes pre-provisioning impossible.

What happens when we click on save?

A POST request is made, passing an interesting payload to the /api/edge/batch.json endpoint. Let’s see how does it looks like.

This POST puts a payload with all the ONU configuration, and a bit more. It uses a JSON structure which looks like this.

    "SET": {
        "onu-list": {
            "UBNTffffffff": {
                "disable": "false",
                "profile": "profile-2",
                "name": "ARTURO TEST",
                "wifi": {
                    "provisioned": false,
                    "enabled": true,
                    "ssid": "UBNT-ONU",
                    "hide-ssid": false,
                    "auth-mode": "wpa2psk",
                    "wpapsk": "",
                    "channel": "auto",
                    "channel-width": "20/40",
                    "tx-power": "100"
                "pppoe-mode": "auto",
                "pppoe-user": "ARTURO",
                "pppoe-password": "ARTURO",
                "wan-address": "null",
                "port-forwards": []

Of course this is a fake ONU with a UBNTffffffff serial number. Yeah, we can fool the GUI and send whatever values we want.

This comes real handy because you can pre-provision ONUs before they show up in the PON port.

As an ISP, this means a time saver, because you can deliver ONUs ready to plug and play, and the OLT will hand out all the configuration without further intervention.

The web GUI is handy (altough not so stable), but it really doesn’t makes sense to have to manually provision each ONU when they are connected in the PON port.
Technicians have to spend to a lot time on customers houses waiting for the NOC to configure each new customer. This is no-bueno in pandemic times. You want to install as many new customers as possible, as fast as possible, and staying in foreign homes as less as possible.

It seems it’s time for me to code something.

If you are reading this, Robert Pera, please make me a CLI.

Digging into Ubiquiti’s UFiber OLT

As some of you might know, currently I’m working as a network engineer on a medium size ISP. The company had a long history working as a WISP, and in later times they moved into FTTH, trying several vendors among the lead players of the industry.

As some of you might also know, Argentina has a history of economic meltdowns, currency devaluations and import restrictions. Considering this, the best solution to implement a network here is usually the one you can afford, which can provide the performance you need, and over all things, the one you will be able to keep buying in the future.

So, considering all these factors, when planning for a GPON network for a medium size operator…while trying to keep costs low for both the company and customers:

  • It really doesn’t matter if Calix supports XGS-PON technologies…
  • Or if Huawei gear is compatible with almost everything…
  • Or if Furukawa Electric has some great management software…

The real questions to ask were:

  • Can the company afford the OLTs, and the ONUs for the planned customer base?
  • Will they be in the market in the years to come?

Enter Ubiquiti UFiber

UFiber offers internet and telecom service providers a cost‑effective fiber optic delivery system for Triple Play Services (data, voice, IPTV/VoD) with speeds of up to 2.488 Gbps downstream and 1.244 Gbps upstream.

OLTs come with dual hot-swap power supplies, 4 and 8 PON ports versions. Every PON port supports 128 CPEs, 20 Km maximum range. The uplinks are two SFP+, which can with in LACP.

The ONUs options, at the time when I’m writing, are:

  • UFiber Nano – one PON (of course), one Gigabit Ethernet, a fancy LCD display. Passive PoE powered.
  • UFiber Loco – a PON, a Giga Eth, passive PoE powered or external micro USB power.
  • UFiber Wifi, like above, but with 4 Giga Ethernet ports, and a 802.11n interface.
  • UFiber Instant, a nice SFP ONU.

Ok, sounds nice. How do we manage them? There is a web GUI…

Hey, the GUI looks like EdgeOS !

Once logged in, the GUI has a nice dashboard which looks like this. And it crashes from time to time.

They tried

But this not EdgeOS, the OLT is a different product! Let’s ssh into it to get the real feel.

ssh admin@olt
The authenticity of host 'olt (olt)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:thnWRB2bImsdNuu1ar74GryFwv5r7PoHJsHhJOkHnCQ.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'olt' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
Welcome to EdgeOS
By logging in, accessing, or using the Ubiquiti product, you
acknowledge that you have read and understood the Ubiquiti
License Agreement (available in the Web UI at, by default, and agree to be bound by its terms.
admin@olt's password:
Linux olt 4.4.159+ #1 SMP Fri Feb 22 15:28:22 UTC 2019 mips
Welcome to EdgeOS
Last login: Tue May 26 15:50:16 2020 from

Ok, this is definitely EdgeOS. So we got a fully featured command line interface, with commands similar to Juniper JunOS.

admin@olt:~$ show configuration | display set
-vbash: display: command not found

Ok, maybe the command line is not so-fully-featured. No worries, I’ll write Ansible playbooks to manage the OLTs anyway. Most of the configuration is Juniper-like, so all I need at this moment is find out how to configure GPON profiles, and provision ONUs.

admin@olt:~$ show configuration | match onu
admin@olt:~$ show configuration | match profile
admin@olt:~$ show configuration | match gpon
gpon {

There you are! Let’s go into configuration mode.

admin@olt:~$ configure
admin@olt# show system gpon
isolation enable
mtu 1518

Well, this is awkward. There is nothing about GPON in the command line. Neither in the working configuration, and of course being Ubiquiti, there are no command line manuals.

Love the smell of undocumented commands in the morning

So, I saw two interesting lines before: Linux olt 4.4.15, and -vbash: display: command not found, which tells me this is Linux, not BSD as in Junos, and we have bash.

Possible completions:
  add           Add an object to a service
  clear         Clear system information
  configure     Enter configure mode
  connect       Establish a connection
  copy          Copy data
  delete        Delete a file
  disconnect    Take down a connection
  generate      Generate an object
  initial-setup Enter initial configuration dialog
  no            Disable or reset operational variable
  ping          Send Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request
  ping6         Send IPv6 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) echo request
  reboot        Reboot the system
  release       Release specified variable
  rename        Re-name something.
  renew         Renew specified variable
  reset         Reset a service
  restart       Restart a service
  set           Set system or shell options
  show          Show system information
  shutdown      Shutdown the system
  telnet        Telnet to <hostname|IPv4 address>
  terminal      Control terminal behaviors
  traceroute    Track network path to <hostname|IPv4 address>
  traceroute6   Track network path to <hostname|IPv6 address>

No signs of bourne again shells in the horizon. Does my magic have any power here?

admin@olt:~$ sh
sh-4.4$ whoami
sh-4.4$ sudo su

Finally a decent shell. Which world is this?

root@olt:~# uname -a
Linux olt 4.4.159+ #1 SMP Fri Feb 22 15:28:22 UTC 2019 mips GNU/Linux
root@olt:~# ls -l /etc/ | grep apt
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 117 Feb 22 2019 apt

We have apt, so this is a Debian world. I checked on /etc/apt/ and there are no repositories, but I am sure I could run cowsay on this. But the fun can wait.

Where is my GPON configuration? It should say “onu” somewhere.

root@olt:/# grep -r "onu" / | more
grep: /proc/sys/net/ipv4/route/flush: Permission denied
/config/onu_config.json: "onu-policies": {
/config/onu_config.json: "onu-list": {
/config/onu_config.json: "onu-profiles": {
/home/admin/.history:show configuration | match onu
/home/admin/.history:show configuration | match onu
Binary file /lib/mipsel-linux-gnu/libbsd.so.0.8.3 matches
Binary file /lib/mipsel-linux-gnu/libnss_hesiod-2.24.so matches
Binary file /lib/udev/hwdb.bin matches
/lib/udev/hwdb.d/20-OUI.hwdb: ID_OUI_FROM_DATABASE=Monument Labs, Inc.
/lib/udev/hwdb.d/20-OUI.hwdb: ID_OUI_FROM_DATABASE=Optical Zonu Corporation
/lib/udev/hwdb.d/20-OUI.hwdb: ID_OUI_FROM_DATABASE=Presonus Corporation
/lib/udev/hwdb.d/20-usb-vendor-model.hwdb: ID_VENDOR_FROM_DATABASE=PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc.
Binary file /opt/bcm68620/bcm68620_appl.bin matches
Binary file /opt/bcm68620/bcm_dev_ctrl_linux.ko matches
Binary file /opt/bcm68620/bcm_user_appl matches
/opt/vyatta/share/vyatta-cfg/templates/system/gpon/logging/module/node.def:syntax:expression: $VAR(@) in "main", "oltsys", "onu", "session", "events", "mon_th", "sdk"
/opt/vyatta/share/vyatta-cfg/templates/system/gpon/logging/module/node.def:allowed: echo main oltsys onu session events mon_th sdk

I bolded the interesting information.

  • There is a /config directory, which has a JSON file called onu_config.json
  • The operating system, is in fact, Vyatta.

If you are curious, this is the content of /config. We will dig deeper on the next article.

root@olt:/# ls -l /config
total 200
-rw-rw-r-- 1 root vyattacfg 3336 Jan 1 2015 2020
drwxrwsr-x 1 root vyattacfg 160 Feb 22 2019 auth
-rw-rw-r-- 1 root vyattacfg 3882 May 26 11:59 config.boot
-rw-r----- 1 root vyattacfg 2402 Dec 31 2014 config.boot.2015-01-01-0001.pre-migration
-rw-r----- 1 root vyattacfg 3151 Apr 13 2015 config.boot.2015-04-14-0130.pre-migration
-rw------- 1 root vyattacfg 187285 May 26 16:14 onu_config.json
drwxrwsr-x 1 root vyattacfg 232 Feb 22 2019 scripts
drwxr-sr-x 2 root vyattacfg 232 Dec 31 2014 snmp
drwxrwsr-x 1 root vyattacfg 160 Feb 22 2019 support
drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 160 Oct 29 2018 udapi-bridge
drwxrwsr-x 1 root vyattacfg 160 Feb 22 2019 user-data
drwxr-sr-x 3 www-data vyattacfg 224 Dec 31 2014 wizard

Creating passwordless logins with Ansible

What kind of users? Well, a special user called Ansible, which will use SSH keys to login into remote devices, allowing for full automation on playbooks.

Creating a new key

If you have been following the series, maybe you remember that we already created keys on the Juniper Junos SSH Keys post.

To create a new key, let’s issue the ssh-keygen command as follows. The -f flag tells the output path, and the -C flags specifies a comment.

$ ssh-keygen -f ansible.key -C ansible-login-passwordless

This should output two files, ansible.key and ansible.key.pub.

The public key should look something like this.

$ cat ansible.key.pub 
ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQCtJUPfzJY6vKqLUssPPQe+LD7qRmIPbVhb/1i4Qab7T0Vf3x+ItfJyV4Ej4FsnRSU8iMU8J5eIdcetGQfsmwIZAm8glB0T6En5F9lvq2Yd+3RKIvxM3UlrIH6EaRedhsRUyV96CHfIO2nVqS9dmFfgrOJMIOwfTWIiRDNczUPw7aqw0FExslw9ZC0FO/1A6hYgofkGLrdIu9gK/WkNg5BE1EUCYPqbDBEHnnhv3C33LqiSJZnXJyqu53qz+jlv+1LZxerNHuovMGZMkjQsBo2f3r9Gk/9HqBmT0rcLr5prm4CqqryJ3S9VyVVlF599BlqYMuMjj+fCj277R8kSnLxl ansible-login-passwordless

Of course we need an inventory to use, which has the following content.

$ cat inventory.yml 
      ansible_ssh_user: ansible
      ansible_ssh_private_key_file: ansible.key
      ansible_python_interpreter: auto_silent

This inventory only has one host, localhost, and uses three main variables:

  • ansible_ssh_user, which tell Ansible to use the user ansible
  • ansible_ssh_private_key_file, which indicates the key for this user
  • ansible_python_interpreter, just to avoid non needed logs

The playbook will looks like this. Notice we don’t need to gather_facts here, and we will instruct ansible to use become to gain privileges on the destination host.

- hosts: all
  become: yes


    - name: Make sure we have a "wheel" group
        name: wheel
        state: present

    - name: Allow 'wheel' group to have passwordless sudo
        dest: /etc/sudoers
        state: present
        regexp: '^%wheel'
        line: '%wheel ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: ALL'
        validate: 'visudo -cf %s'
    - name: Create "ansible" user
        name: ansible
        comment: Ansible Automation User
        groups: wheel

    - name: Add ssh key
        user: ansible
        state: present
        key: "{{ lookup('file', './ansible.key.pub') }}"

First, we want to make sure there is a group called wheel which will group users with administrative privileges.

Then, the /etc/sudoers file will be edited by allowing the wheel group to gain privileges, with a failsafe using a visudo validation.

Once the group has been created, the new user will be created, and a SSH key will be added to it.

It seems allright, but, how should we run the playbook, if the default user is ansible and this user does not exists yet? Let’s give it a try.

$ ansible-playbook create-user.yml -i inventory.yml 

PLAY [all] ************************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] ************************************************************
fatal: [localhost]: UNREACHABLE! => {"changed": false, "msg": "Failed to connect to the host via ssh: ansible@localhost: Permission denied (publickey,password).", "unreachable": true}

PLAY RECAP ************************************************************************
localhost                  : ok=0    changed=0    unreachable=1    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0   

It fails, as expected, because the ansible user does not exists in the host.

Well, there is a way to provide a one-time password by connecting a as different user. You will need to install sshpass with your favourite package manager, like apt install sshpass.

One installed, run the playbook once again with the following arguments:

  • -e “ansible_ssh_user=xxxxx”, where xxxxx is a valid user on the remote host
  • -kK, which tell Ansible to ask for a login and a sudo password
$ ansible-playbook create-user.yml -i inventory.yml -e "ansible_ssh_user=arturo" -kK
SSH password: 
BECOME password[defaults to SSH password]: 

PLAY [all] ************************************************************************

TASK [Gathering Facts] ************************************************************
ok: [localhost]

TASK [Make sure we have a "wheel" group] ******************************************
changed: [localhost]

TASK [Allow 'wheel' group to have passwordless sudo] ******************************
changed: [localhost]

TASK [Create "ansible" user] ******************************************************
changed: [localhost]

TASK [Add ssh key] ****************************************************************
changed: [localhost]

PLAY RECAP ************************************************************************
localhost                  : ok=5    changed=4    unreachable=0    failed=0    skipped=0    rescued=0    ignored=0 

Awesome, we have sucessfully created a new user!

Let’s try to connect using the ansible user with its key, as defined in the playbook.

$ ansible -m ping -i inventory.yml all
localhost | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"

Stay tuned for more automation using Ansible.

Quick Ansible control node with Vagrant

Ansible is an IT automation tools which can configure systems, deploy files and software and orchestrate almost every possible task you can imagine.

Unlike other configuration management tools like Chef or Puppet, Ansible is agent-less, and does all its magic over SSH. Forget about keeping up client daemons updated and additional certificates. Just use your existing SSH keys, or usernames and passwords.

Due to it agent-less nature, we just need a host to initiate SSH sessions towards the managed hosts. This node is called a control node in the Ansible jargon.

On this post, we’ll catch up with the basics of Vagrant and Ansible. The repository for this post is on https://github.com/baldoarturo/ansible-control-node.

Download VirtualBox

VirtualBox is a general-purpose full virtualizer for x86 hardware, targeted at server, desktop and embedded use. Get it from here.

Get Vagrant

We’ll use Vagrant to quickly spin up a control node, based on a ubuntu/xenial64 box. If you are not familiar with Vagrant, you just need to know it is a tool capable to provision VMs on different hypervisors, using a Vagrantfile a VM template.

First, get Vagrant for your system here, https://www.vagrantup.com/downloads.html, and install it.

Use Git

In order to make everything easier, we’ll init a new git repository to keep track of all the configuration changes. Also, we can push this repository to a remote and clone from wherever we need it, making a portable Ansible control node.

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>git init
Initialized empty Git repository in C:/Users/Arturo/Desktop/ansible-control-node/.git/

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>git config user.name "Arturo Baldo"

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>git config user.email "baldoarturo@gmail.com"


Although everything can be done from a shell, I prefer to use the integrated terminal on VSCode, and make use of the universe of plugins. There is support for Ansible and Ansible Playbooks, Vagrant, a lot more!

Also, even if this post uses a Windows system, everything is reproducible on Linux platforms because all the tools are multiplatform.

Init the Vagrant environment

The Vagrant CLI is self explanatory and easy to understand.

Usage: vagrant [options] <command> [<args>]

    -v, --version                    Print the version and exit.
    -h, --help                       Print this help.

Common commands:
     box             manages boxes: installation, removal, etc.
     cloud           manages everything related to Vagrant Cloud
     destroy         stops and deletes all traces of the vagrant machine
     global-status   outputs status Vagrant environments for this user
     halt            stops the vagrant machine
     help            shows the help for a subcommand
     init            initializes a new Vagrant environment by creating a Vagrantfile
     package         packages a running vagrant environment into a box
     plugin          manages plugins: install, uninstall, update, etc.
     port            displays information about guest port mappings
     powershell      connects to machine via powershell remoting
     provision       provisions the vagrant machine
     push            deploys code in this environment to a configured destination
     rdp             connects to machine via RDP
     reload          restarts vagrant machine, loads new Vagrantfile configuration
     resume          resume a suspended vagrant machine
     snapshot        manages snapshots: saving, restoring, etc.
     ssh             connects to machine via SSH
     ssh-config      outputs OpenSSH valid configuration to connect to the machine
     status          outputs status of the vagrant machine
     suspend         suspends the machine
     up              starts and provisions the vagrant environment
     upload          upload to machine via communicator
     validate        validates the Vagrantfile
     version         prints current and latest Vagrant version
     winrm           executes commands on a machine via WinRM
     winrm-config    outputs WinRM configuration to connect to the machine

First, run vagrant intit to initialize a new environment.

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>vagrant init
A `Vagrantfile` has been placed in this directory. You are now
ready to `vagrant up` your first virtual environment! Please read
the comments in the Vagrantfile as well as documentation on
`vagrantup.com` for more information on using Vagrant.

Wait! You have a new file on your git repository. Make it the first commit.

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>git add .

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>git commit -m "First commit"
[master (root-commit) 1416f75] First commit
 1 file changed, 70 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 Vagrantfile


On the newly create Vagrantfile, we can set configuration and provisioning options for the VM.

First, replace config.vm.box = "base" with config.vm.box = "ubuntu/xenial64" to use this box.

If you want to see the VM, config vb.gui = true. By default this setting is commented out, so the VM will start in headless mode.

Feel free to customize the VM memory by commenting out the vb.memory = "1024" setting and adjusting it to your needs.

Once you are done, save your changes, commit, execute vagrant up, and watch Vagrant create a brand new VM for you.

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>vagrant up
Bringing machine 'default' up with 'virtualbox' provider...
==> default: Importing base box 'ubuntu/xenial64'...
==> default: Matching MAC address for NAT networking...
==> default: Checking if box 'ubuntu/xenial64' version '20191114.0.0' is up to date...
==> default: Setting the name of the VM: ansible-control-node_default_1574353915423_60685
==> default: Clearing any previously set network interfaces...
==> default: Preparing network interfaces based on configuration...
    default: Adapter 1: nat
==> default: Forwarding ports...
    default: 22 (guest) => 2222 (host) (adapter 1)
==> default: Running 'pre-boot' VM customizations...
==> default: Booting VM...
==> default: Waiting for machine to boot. This may take a few minutes...
    default: SSH address:
    default: SSH username: vagrant
    default: SSH auth method: private key
    default: Warning: Connection reset. Retrying...
    default: Warning: Connection aborted. Retrying...
    default: Warning: Remote connection disconnect. Retrying...
    default: Vagrant insecure key detected. Vagrant will automatically replace
    default: this with a newly generated keypair for better security.
    default: Inserting generated public key within guest...
    default: Removing insecure key from the guest if it's present...
    default: Key inserted! Disconnecting and reconnecting using new SSH key...
==> default: Machine booted and ready!
==> default: Checking for guest additions in VM...
    default: The guest additions on this VM do not match the installed version of
    default: VirtualBox! In most cases this is fine, but in rare cases it can
    default: prevent things such as shared folders from working properly. If you see
    default: shared folder errors, please make sure the guest additions within the
    default: virtual machine match the version of VirtualBox you have installed on
    default: your host and reload your VM.
    default: Guest Additions Version: 5.1.38
    default: VirtualBox Version: 6.0
==> default: Mounting shared folders...
    default: /vagrant => C:/Users/Arturo/Desktop/ansible-control-node

Well, how do we login into the new VM? Try vagrant ssh

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>vagrant ssh
Welcome to Ubuntu 16.04.6 LTS (GNU/Linux 4.4.0-169-generic x86_64)

 * Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com
 * Management:     https://landscape.canonical.com
 * Support:        https://ubuntu.com/advantage

0 packages can be updated.
0 updates are security updates.

New release '18.04.3 LTS' available.
Run 'do-release-upgrade' to upgrade to it.

vagrant@ubuntu-xenial:~$ whoami

Type exit and you will return to your system prompt.

You’ll see that you have new items on your directory. A .log file, with the output from Vagrant, and a .vagrant/ directory.

To exclude them from the repository, create a .gitignore, with the following contents.


Save and commit.

Provisioning the VM

Return to the Vagrantfile, and add a section like this:

  config.vm.provision "shell", inline: <<-SHELL
    apt-get update
    apt-get install software-properties-common -y
    apt-add-repository --yes --update ppa:ansible/ansible
    apt-get install ansible -y

This block instructs Vagrant to execute commands on the shell. First, the package list is updated, then the software-properties-common package is installed. To install Ansible, the ppa:ansible/ansible repository is added, and then Ansible is installed.

Notice the usage of -y to avoid interactive prompts.

Save the file, commit, and run vagrant provision. This will re-provision the VM with the new instructions from the Vagrantfile.

Once Vagrant finishes, connect once again with vagrant ssh, and run ansible --version.

vagrant@ubuntu-xenial:~$ ansible --version
ansible 2.9.1
  config file = /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg
  configured module search path = [u'/home/vagrant/.ansible/plugins/modules', u'/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules']
  ansible python module location = /usr/lib/python2.7/dist-packages/ansible
  executable location = /usr/bin/ansible
  python version = 2.7.12 (default, Oct  8 2019, 14:14:10) [GCC 5.4.0 20160609]

That’s great! We have just installed Ansible on our new VM.

Seek and Destroy

You might wonder, where is this VM? Head to the VirtualBox Manager, and you’ll find it inside.

Here it is!

Without asking anyone.. kill the machine and delete it.

Hard power off
Delete all files

Head back to the console, and you will see that the SSH session has died. Of course, this makes perfect sense as the VM no longer exists.

vagrant@ubuntu-xenial:~$ Connection to closed by remote host.
 Connection to closed.

If you try to run vagrant provision, it will fail, as there is no VM to provision.

C:\Users\Arturo\Desktop\ansible-control-node>vagrant provision
==> default: VM not created. Moving on...

But what happens if you run vagrant up once again? Surprise! The VM will be recreated with all the previous configuration settings.

Using Ansible

Well, the VM is ready, Ansible is installed.. now what? Let’s write an inventory file and see what can we do.

I’ll create a simple file to connect to a testing docker instance on No need to worry about ssh keys now, as we are testing, username and password will do the trick.

vagrant@ubuntu-xenial:~$ cat docker


The [all:vars] section configures the connection settings for all hosts in the file. The [docker] section contains the lists of hosts, in this case just

Let’s run: ansible -m ping -i docker all, where -m is the module to run, -i is the inventory file, and all is the section of the inventory file which contains the hosts. Notice this is a very special ping.

vagrant@ubuntu-xenial:~$ ansible -m ping -i docker all
[DEPRECATION WARNING]: Distribution Ubuntu 16.04 on host should use /usr/bin/python3, but is using /usr/bin/python for backward compatibility with prior Ansible releases. A future Ansible release
 will default to using the discovered platform python for this host. See https://docs.ansible.com/ansible/2.9/reference_appendices/interpreter_discovery.html for more information. This feature will be removed   
in version 2.12. Deprecation warnings can be disabled by setting deprecation_warnings=False in ansible.cfg. | SUCCESS => {
    "ansible_facts": {
        "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/bin/python"
    "changed": false, 
    "ping": "pong"

Whoa! That definetly doesn’t look like a ICMP ping. First, this is an old box about to be decomissioned, so it has been very unmantained. Ansible warns us about an old version of Python, and a old version of Ansible which was installed previously on the remote hosts.

Now, try ansible -m setup -i docker all. Be aware this will throw a ton of data to you. The setup module gathers data about the host.

What it does and how does it, is documented here.

101 Labs – Linux LPIC1 is out

I am the Technical Editor for the new Paul Browning book, 101 Labs – Linux LPIC1.

Experts agree that we retain only 10% of what we read but 90% of what we do. Perhaps this explains why the global pass rate for most IT exams is a ghastly 40%.

101 Labs’ mission is to turn you into an IT expert by doing instead of reading. Using free software and free trials, the labs take you by the hand and walk you through every aspect of the protocols and technologies you will encounter in your IT career.

Configuration tips and tricks are shared with you as well as how to avoid the common mistakes many novice engineers make, which can quickly become career-ending.

You can get a free preview or buy the ebook below.

101 Labs – Linux LPIC1 takes you through the beginner exam syllabus, the LPI Linux Essentials in case you are a novice and want to learn the basics of Linux or simply just brush up your skills. You then tackle all the main LPIC1 topics broken into the two exams 101 and 102.

Upgrading a MikroTik CHR Cluster

I upgraded a CHR cluster with the main objectives of reduce costs, improve network redundancy and provide an easy administration for CHR instances. As explained in previous posts, CHR can be run on many popular hypervisors, and most users are having great success using Hyper-V Failover clusters or vSphere HA to provide highly available routers without depending on VRRP or other gateway redundancy protocols.

These virtual routers currently provide two main services besides routing for ISP customers. They act as PPPoE concentrator for FTTH users, and provide traffic shaping and policing depending on the customer service plan.

Server Hardware

For this node, I will use a 32 core Dell R730, with 32 GB of RAM, and a 500 GB RAID 10 storage. On future post, new hosts will be added to the cluster.

Unracking the server

Network Conectivity

This server comes with a 4 port Gigabit Ethernet NIC, which could be used without any issues with the ixgbe driver.

First idea was to use two ports in a LACP bundle, and the other two in separate port groups.

I had previous Netflow analysis where I saw a predictable traffic behavior, where most of the bandwidth usage was going from and to a CDN peer of the ISP network. Customers had a mix of public and private addresses of the Class B segment, and they were being moved to CG-NAT ranges. In other words, traffic from a specific set of addresses were going from and to a specific set of addresses.

Why not configure two port-channels, instead of using separate port groups? I tested and due to the nature of the IP addressing on the customer side of the routers, none of the available hashing modes for LACP allowed to achieve a decent distribution on both links of the port-channel.

So, for the purposes of this cluster, I added an Intel X520 dual SFP+ card, providing 20 Gbps conectivity to the CHR instances. Peak bandwidth usage was around 4200 Mbps, so this card is more than enough to allow for future grow.

Installing the Intel X520 NIC

The Intel X520 only supports Intel branded SFP modules, and this behavior can be tuned configuring the kernel module. However, for this particular scenario, where both ports will be connected to a top of rack Dell Force10 S4048-ON switch, I choosed to use DAC cables to keep things simple.

DAC cables on the switch
Connecting the server

The server is using ESXi 6.5 for the hypervisor. After booting, I noticed the NICs were being recognized as vmnic5 and vmnic6, but they were using the ixgbe driver and only establishing links at 1 Gbps.

I downloaded the ixgben driver which is provided by VMware itself here and uploaded it to ESXi via SFTP.

For all my SFTP needs, my tool of choice always is Bitwise SSH client.

Once uploaded, I installed the offline bundle with the following command line.

[root@esxi] esxcli software vib install -d "/complete/path/to/the/driver/bundle"

Then I followed the KB article to disable the native ixgbe driver and use the new one. First, I placed the host on maintenance mode, and then I executedthe following to disable the driver.

[root@esxi] esxcli system module set --enabled=false --module=ixgbe

After a reboot, the new ixgben driver was loaded, and the NICs were establishing links at 10 Gbps.

I added the new NICs to the previously created virtual switches, checked the correct assignments of port groups, and then migrated the VMs to this host.

Building a network on Entre Ríos

It is always nice to fly. I took two flights, the first one with a little stop at Aeroparque (AEP), and then a short one to Paraná city (PRA). The skies were just beautiful.

Travelling MDZ to AEP

My current company is establishing operations on Entre Rios province, where a we are initiating a brand-new ISP service for the towns of Crespo, Libertador San Martin, and Paraná City. This was the main task among another small consulting and assistance.

My first time seeing the mighty Paraná river

Connecting People

Service is provided with two providers, and BGP sessions must be established with both to announce a /24 prefix of our AS, and probably receive just a default route from the upstream. There is no need to use the full table- yet. Both providers has approximately the same AS-PATH.

We’ll use a MikroTik CCR1036-8G-2S+ as the border router. Although it has SFP+ ports to allow 10 Gbps operation, at the moment the links will be negotiated using SFP modules at 1000 Mbps.

Main customer will be directly connected to this router using copper at 1 Gbps. They are using a MikroTik CRS326-24G-2S+ for their edge router, which will be enough for their 100 Mbps service. They provide us co-location too, so I installed the core router on their shelter, which is backed up by dual A/C systems and dual UPS-rectifier systems.

The new router racked and powered up
We’ll have some mate while waiting for the upstream provider port to go into no shutdown

Once the upstream was go, I was able to see they were in fact sending us the full BGP table, which we don’t need yet, so a couple route filters were configured to use put only a default gateway on the main routing table. As the default route was configured as a static one, the route filter policy was as easy as discard all BGP inputs.

[rootmin@ROUTER-EDUC.AR-PARANA] > routing filter export 
# jun/18/2019 16:24:37 by RouterOS 6.42.6
/routing filter
add action=discard chain=dynamic-in protocol=bgp

On this site there was also an Ubiquiti AirFiber 11X wireless link to reach Libertador San Martín town. Both radios were previously installed but not configured, so I connected to the radio and the site and configured it as Master. We traveled to the remote end, configured the radio as Slave and it worked just fine. Ubiquiti is getting up to date with their firmwares and UI, and it has became pretty straight forward to get a link working, even for someone with little or none networking skills.

¿Do you think this ease-of-use is making the job easier for us, or is it the start point of a madness of wireless spectrum usage?

From this node at Libertador, we installed two single-mode fiber lines, one to connect the town Hospital and another for the town University. MikroTik CRS326-24G-2S+ switches were installed at each site to be used as CPEs.

All monitoring, reporting and backup systems were previously configured at our NOC, so that was ll for us on the site.

Watching cars go by

I also assisted a brand new urban surveillance camera installation on the entrance of the Raúl Uranga – Carlos Sylvestre Begnis Subfluvial Tunnel. The objective was to read license plates on this strategic points, which is one of the few exits outside the Paraná river, and the one which has the most vehicle traffic.

Previously we had selected a Hikvision DS-2CD4A26FWD-IZHS8/P (yep, that’s the model name) camera which was already installed by Policía of Entre Ríos technician. This camera was specifically designed for licence-plate recognition (LPR). It supports OCR on hardware and works in very low light conditions, as low as 0.0027 lux.

Traces of Paraná City

I stayed at Hotel Howard Johnson Plaza Resort & Casino Mayorazgo, and I encourage you to visit it. The rooms are lovely and the staff is excellent.

My view from the hotel room

Be sure to schedule time to walk on the Paraná river borders, visit the Martiniano Leguizamón historic town museum and enjoy yourself. This is a beautiful city.

Blue skies at Crespo, Entre Ríos

Using The Dude on MikroTik CHR

The Dude network monitor is RouterOS package intended to manage a network environment. It automatically scan all devices within specified subnets, draw and layout a network maps, monitor services, and alert you in case of problems.

Previous versions of The Dude were developed as Windows x86 software, but later versions went through a full rebuild, and now it is distributed as a RouterOS package. This comes handy as the same RouterOS instance can be linked to the network, eliminating the the need for additional VPNs on servers or gateways. Instead, all tunneling can be done inside the CHR instance.

The Windows versions also had a web GUI which was, awful. For all the new editions, you’ll need a software client available on https://download.mikrotik.com/routeros/6.43.14/dude-install-6.43.14.exe

It will update itself whenever you connect to a newer RouterOS version. Just be sure to run it as administrator on W10.


Get the CHR package from https://download.mikrotik.com/routeros/6.43.14/dude-6.43.14.npk.

Once downloaded, upload it to the CHR instance via Winbox drag-and-drop, FTP client, or just download it from inside chr:

Downloading from CHR

Reboot the CHR instance, and you will find the new Dude menu inside Winbox.

New Dude menu

Head to Dude > Settings and tick Enabled to enable the server. A few folders will be created on the filesystem, and the server will be ready to accept connections on port 8291. The previous x86 based versions of Dude used port TCP/2210 or TCP/2211, but on this new integrated RouterOS package, all the management is handled on the same port as Winbox.

If you still don’t have the client, get it on https://download.mikrotik.com/routeros/6.43.14/dude-install-6.43.14.exe.

One you connect, the following window should appear by default. You can run a discover for multiple networks and let Dude map your network for you, but it will only disconver layer 3 adyancencies. In order to have complete control over the monitoring, I suggest to build your backbone manually and let the autodiscovery handle your management VLANs/VRFs.